Dealing English


Article a (an) introduces a noun and is set to "on", "in terms of", "for", because there is an excuse omission per:

* $ 92 a share - $ 92 per share (= $ 92 per share).
* The gold closed yesterday in London at $ 371.35 a troy ounce. Yesterday, gold closed in London at around U.S. $ 371.35 per troy ounce.

5. Pretexts relating to the figures.

Reduction (blank) prepositions

Excuse by

a) The arithmetic value preposition by.

Preceding number, except for dates, is set by the preposition "to", "for so many":

* Reduced by 5% - decreased by 5% (for profit);
* Increased by 10% - up 10%;
* Rose by 5c - increased by 5 cents, fell by 5c - fell 5 cents (share price);
* During January, retail sales declined by 0.6% month-to-month. - In January, retail sales dropped by 0.6% the previous month.
* Prices are unlikely to rise by much this year. - It is unlikely that prices will rise much this year.

Not all verbs require behind by, ie not always his absence in this context is the result of the omission. These are the words of shed (drop, drop), lose (loss), gain (win, get the increment), etc.

The texts of the dynamics of the market an excuse by the arithmetic value is often omitted. However, this does not apply to cases in which distance themselves from the mother by the verb. For example:
A buoyant UK stock market helped to SWELL unit trust funds under management BY nearly 5 billion to a record £128 billion. - The vibrant stock market in the UK in August helped boost funds under management of mutual funds, about 5 billion pounds to re-cord 128 billion pounds.

b). Excuse by measuring the time.

In conjunction with dates, names of months, etc. by matters "to such a time":
* By the end of the year - by the end of the year;
* By mid-May - mid-May;
* By 2002 - by 2002.

In this meaning, by pretext never drops.

Task 1.

Determine whether there is an excuse the omission by:
1) British Petroleum third-quarter profit rose 22% to £685 million from £532 million in the year-earlier period.
2) Strong audio sales helped lift revenue 5 percent, to 666.50 bn yen.
3) AMR tumbled * 2 3/8 to 89 5/8 after ...
* Tumble - collapse, collapse.

Double excuse from ... to ...

Indispensable condition of its use is the same on both the dimension of the numerical values. For example:
* From three to 10 yen - three to 10 yen;
* A fillip for EuropeHs economies: the Buba * cut GermanyHs discount rate from 3% to 2.5% and its Lombard rate from 5% to 4.5%. - The push for the European economies: the Bundesbank cut interest rates in Germany, from 3% to 2.5% and the Lombard rate loan - from 5% to 4.5%.
* Buba - Bundes Bank

This double excuse often reduced to «to»:
from 5 to 10 - 5 to 10.

Omission of the preposition on the days of the week.

This newfangled phenomenon occurs in stable expressions like: said Friday, announced Monday:
* British group Mercury Tuesday posted a 29% jump * in second-half pretax profits to $ 133.94 million up from $ 104.14 in the first half year. - British band "Mercury" on Tuesday reported a 29 per cent jump in gross profit to 104.14 in the first half of the year to 133.94 million in the second half.
* Jump operates three prepositions:
jump in profits
jump to $ 133.94 million
jump up from $ 104.14