Russia's leadership in question

Remained stable demand for palladium in the chemical industry, with sales remained active palladium catalysts used in various chemical processes, and the use of palladium in nitric acid production continues to decline.

Demand for palladium from other areas of consumption decreased mainly due to return to the market of metal from spent capacitors used in the refining industry. Decreased demand for palladium in jewelry, jewelry manufacturers used as alloys containing small amounts of the metal.

"Demons" and "space"

The use of platinum and palladium for jewelery due to the fact that, unlike other platinum group metals, both metal forging, amenable rolling, drawing, stamping at relatively low temperatures. However, the family of precious metals, they have been taken recently in historical terms. Platinum is a little more than 200 years ago, was considered a "bad" metal. After its rehabilitation belongs to France - a trendsetter and a bearer of new ideas. Parisian jeweler Etienne Jeanette, believing in the future of platinum, was buying it for future use. His friend, Louis-Bernard de Giton Morven (1737-1816), a poet, a lawyer and a big fan of chemistry, has developed a new way to process platinum. In 1776, jewelry stores in Paris were first jewelry made of platinum. At the same time, manufacturers began to acquire vessels and platinum coils for treatment of strong acids, sugars and metals. With advertising (in the XVIII century, already knew how to do it correctly) platinum came into vogue. Chemical resistance and refractoriness platinum settled the question in favor of it when choosing the metal for the manufacture of prototype meter and kilogram, which subsequently became international units. This decision was taken by the revolutionary government of France in 1795. Until then, "serebrishko" - as translated from Spanish platinum - was truly demonic obsession for Spanish conquistadors. First found in New Granada (now known as Columbia) at a gold mine for the metal Spaniards took silver. In fact, platinum and silver are rarely found together. Conventional her companions - palladium (up to 3%), iridium (up to 28%), iron (20%), copper (up 13%) and rhodium (up 5%). Somehow discovered the "silver" will not melt, heated red-hot in the forge (melting 1773oS platinum and silver - 960oS), and it was impossible to even flatten hammer on the anvil!

But it is everywhere accompanied by gold. And to separate the two metal smelting was not possible, because the gold melt firmly mated with platinum. The alloy, which is nicknamed the "Spanish" or "rotten" in gold. In modern terms, the Spanish rate of money fell sharply. Therefore, the Spanish King Philip V in 1735, ordered not to import "serebrishko" in the country, and drown in the rivers in the mining sites. Worsened the situation Spanish naval officer and astronomer Antonio de Ulloa (1716-1795), who gave a description of platinum in 1748. This although he was famous, but amassed enemies among court alchemists. According to the theory of alchemy, gold is the crown of creation, because it - the heavy metal in nature. And platinum is heavier than gold! Four years later, in 1752, the Swedish chemist Henrik Schaefer proved that platinum is a new chemical element.

In 1815, the LME price of platinum has exceeded the price of gold. And until now, "serebrishko" remains more expensive than "Kings of Metal", but people still prefer to purchase gold. Russia, with rich deposits of platinum, was the first in the world to mint coins of this metal. From 1828 to 1845. at the Mint in St. Petersburg was made about 1.5 million platinum coins total weight of 15 tons.

History of the discovery of palladium is less dramatic, but also very unusual. In 1803, English scientist WH Wollaston (1766-1828) isolated from native platinum palladium. In one of the English apothecary shops for sale was put a yellow metal called "Palladium". Considered typical English name draw, but held "independent experts" spectral analysis showed that the metal was not previously known to science. Only then will the owner of the metal showed up, who said so its priority. The name new precious metal was named after the asteroid Pallas, in 1802 by the German astronomer open and physician Heinrich Olbers (1758-1940). In the jewelry industry, and as a currency metal palladium was used much later platinum - only in the twentieth century.