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* The trendline in place since mid-December - a trend which has existed since mid-December.

Specify the date on which the actual data.

AS phrase of = as from date means (usually in the tables) on what date are digital data. For example: as of December 31 - as of December 31; figures as of close of trading * Friday, Nov.1 - data as at closing on Friday, November 1.

* Omission of the preposition on.

Option as from fairly rare.

Ended Sept. 30 and similar expressions indicate an upper limit of time, to which the above data (usually the end of the year or quarter). For example:

* In the year ended Jan. 31, 1998, OfficeMax posted earnings of 47c a share on sales of $ 2.5 billion. - OfficeMax reported revenue for the year to 31 January 1998 in the amount of 47 cents per share on sales of $ 2.5 billion

* Week to May 1sty - week ended May 1;

* Year-to-date profit - profits earned in the current year to the present (ie, the year is not over yet): Moreover, year-to-date bank profits have risen 11%. - Moreover, the profit this year to date has increased by 11%.

Typical of the following expressions:

* Year to end-March - financial year to March 31. The fund declared losses for the year to end-March. - It announced a loss for the year to March 31.

* Ending Sept.30 and the like:

Net profits for the three months ending Sept. 30 fell to $ 112 million, or 88 cents per share. - Net income for the three months to Sept. 30 fell to $ 112 million, or 88 cents per share.

7. Abbreviations with numbers.

H1 - first half; H2 - second half:

Chirac «convinced» H2 2000 will be more favourable for growth, jobs than H1. - Chirac "convinced" that the second half of 2000 will be more favorable to economic growth and job creation than the first.

Q1 - the first quarter, Q4 - fourth quarter; G-7 - "Seven" (countries);

M1 ... M4 money supply - monetary aggregate M1 ... M4: This has distorted M4 money supply and bank lending, seeing the headline figure rise * a greater than expected 1.4% month-on month in January. - It has violated the monetary aggregate M4 and bank lending has led to the fact that the leading index rose in January by a larger amount than expected - by 1.4% compared to the previous month.

* Rise is an infinitive in the complex infinitive turnover «seeing the headline figure rise»; «figure» it is not subject to the «rise», as a direct complement to the verbal form of «seeing».

m - million; bn - billion (billion); MM - mega million (billion).

8. Stable expression involving numbers:

score one - 1-0:

Score one for boat-rockers at Deutsche Bank. - Score one - nil in favor of rocking the boat "Deutsche Bank."

competitor No. 1 - number one competitor;

No. One in the industry - no one in the industry;

No. One thing - the factor number 1:

The No. One thing that will drive IBMHs growth in the future is a total commitment to solutions, not piece parts. - Issue No. 1, which IBM will provide growth in the future - it is her commitment to the decisions, not private problems.