Very large Yuan


<Strong> sought to absorb <weakest>, fought each other, entered into temporary alliances and coalitions. Nobody paid attention to the outlying kingdom of Qin. It was not the strongest, nor the richest. But he defended the neighbors Hwang Ho river and mountain ranges. While others have exhausted themselves in strife, Qin kopilo force. Believing themselves to be descendants of the Son of Heaven, these people proclaimed principle "one sky - a gentleman>.

In the IV century BC Minister Shang Yan Qing Wang supported reforms have been undertaken. Entrenched, the first blow dealt State Shu Qin-Ba rich deposits of iron. Further absorption neighbors went almost non-stop. After winning the next realm, the ruler of Qin destroyed its capital, canceled all previous privileges, introducing their laws of weight and value. After 17 years, he took the last independent kingdom and declared himself Huang - the emperor. In Chinese history, he went by the name of Qin Shi Huang - the first emperor of Qin. That he joined the northern city walls in a continuous Great Wall. All building in the country were razed. Autocrat was all in an effort to subdue raznolikuyu country, destroying temples, melting the bronze weapons, prohibiting local writing characters. After his death the empire fell apart - but one of the leaders of the rebels, Liu Bang, joined her again, canceling most hated laws. His kingdom Han continued to cultivate common measures of weight, single letter, a single coin.

Qin Qian

Qin Qian, round bronze coin with a quadrangular hole in the middle, turned to China for about 2,500 years. Unprecedented in the history of the world! Coin Change the size, weight, lettering - but remained the same in form and method of manufacture. She was not struck, and was cast in special molds. The obverse of the coin, as a rule, is four characters. Two vertical designated motto of the reign of the emperor. Each emperor at his accession to the throne chose his motto. Say <Heavenly Peace> or <Universal joy>. These slogans were changed every five to six years. On them modern numismatists now age dated coins. Beginning in the Ming Dynasty, the motto was one rule for all. Two horizontal character passed name of the coin: yuan bao - <original jewel> tong bao - <facing jewel> zhong bao - <heavy jewel>.

Additional characters and symbols on the back did the different mints, a series of issues and even the numbers of smelting furnaces. Familiarly known as the Chinese coins <brothers with a square hole in it>. So do not hesitate to call their collections under the names of coins <circulation of precious>. Some coins also were like amulets. After all, they flaunted characters Sheng - life, Cai - wealth. There have been attempts to produce bronze instead of iron money, but, except for inflation, this does not lead to anything.

The first paper money appeared in China during the Tang Dynasty - the most powerful and glorious. Originally it had cash receipts and bills that merchants took to the road and then exchanged for hard cash. Ease of money was so obvious that officials began to practice them to send taxes. The government has issued <exchange notes>, which can be purchased at any of the country products, tea, salt. These, in our understanding, the money appeared in the X century in the province of Sichuan.